Dog Collars : The Humane Society of the United States

A martingale collar fits loosely on a dog’s neck but tightens when it needs to.
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Martingale collars (sometimes called "Greyhound" or "limited slip" collars) were originally designed for use in breeds like sight hounds, since their neck widths are often equal to or wider than their heads. It can be quite easy for these breeds to slip out of a flat collar, but a martingale collar prevents this by means of an extra loop that can softly tighten and stay snug against the neck if the dog tries to pull away. The use of martingale collars has gained popularity in other breeds for training purposes or for dogs that have a habit of trying to slip out of a flat collar.
The limited-slip collar does not have a buckle. It slides over the dog’s head and is then tightened to proper fit.
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The limited-slip collar will tighten just enough to keep the collar from slipping over the dog’s head if the dog tries to “back out.” At the local humane society where I volunteered as a dog handler, limited-slip collars were required for those of us who walked dogs that were more difficult to manage because they pulled, lunged, or bolted. The limited-slip collar ensured that the dog could not break loose and run off. 4. When the dog pulls, the loop up front on the collar will tighten so your dog cannot escape their collar.
Photo provided by FlickrMost buckle collars are adjustable but do not tighten on the dog's neck once fastened
Photo provided by FlickrMartingale-style collars are designed to tighten if your dog starts to pull
Photo provided by Flickr
Slip collars should fit just below the dog's ears for good results. They work by tightening and loosening a noose around the dog's neck. A harsh jerk with a slip collar can damage a dog's trachea. Furthermore slip collars may not be effective on dogs with thick necks or thick coats, particularly if they slide out of position.The prong collar is made of interlocking links, each with two blunt prongs that pinch the dog's skin when the collar is tightened. It should fit snugly just below the dog's ears. Unlike the chain slip collar, it puts even pressure around the neck by pinching the skin in a band about a half inch wide. No pressure is put directly on the trachea with the pinch collar.The humane choker looks like a prong collar made of chain instead of interlocking links. It has two loops, one of which fits around the dog's neck. The second loop is attached to the first and is used to tighten the chain when necessary to guide the dog or correct his behavior. This collar is becoming more popular among trainers who prefer to teach the dog through motivation rather than correction.Some trainers use the prong collar for a couple of practice sessions, then leave it on the dog's neck along with the buckle or slip collar so they can switch the leash back and forth if necessary. Some experienced trainers do use the prong on puppies or shy dogs, but they pad the neck under the collar by slipping a child's tank top around the pup's neck. Some turn the collar "inside out" so the smooth side of the links lie against the dog's neck and the collar constricts but does not pinch when tightened.SMDC: Soft Martingale Dog Collars feature 3 solid metal slides and a tightening loop with a d-ring. It easily slips over your dog's head and adjusted for the perfect fit. This collar is great for training dogs not to pull while on a leash, and for breeds that have smaller heads then necks. When a leash is attached to the d-ring, the loop tightens, and prevents your dog from slipping out of its collar.As the name implies, this collar is made of metal links and is designed to control your dog by tightening around your dog's neck. It is supposed to sit high up on the dog's neck just behind their ears.